Apr 152021
 

Eighty years ago, 80 years ago, on September 1, 1939, German troops invaded Poland, triggering the start of World War II, the deadliest military conflict in human history, involving an estimated 100 million people from 30 countries. Britain and France, which had pledged their help to Poland, declared war on Germany and its allies two days later, on 3 September. The start of the war revealed to the world the folly of the Munich Agreement signed less than a year earlier – an agreement seen as a disastrous act of appeasement of Adolf Hitler`s Nazi regime and historical evidence that expansionist totalitarianism cannot be demonstrated by placement. The British people expected an imminent war and Chamberlain`s “state gesture” was initially applauded. He was greeted as a hero by the royal family and invited to the balcony of Buckingham Palace before submitting the agreement to the British Parliament. The general positive reaction quickly re-established despite the royal patronage. However, there was resistance from the beginning. Clement Attlee and labor rejected the deal in alliance with the two Conservative MPs Duff Cooper and Vyvyan Adams, who until then had been seen as a hard and reactionary element in the Conservative party. London, FridayThe Munich agreement gives Hitler everything he wants (first), except to the extent that he may not be quite able to get it as quickly as he would have done under Godesberg`s full ultimatum. He will begin tomorrow the invasion of Czechoslovakia, as he threatened in his speech of 12 September.

It is free to occupy all the regions where the Sudeten Germans are the majority, and this by leaps and bounds. On his way back from Munich, Chamberlain told an excited crowd at Heston airport: “It is peace for our time” and he praised the agreement he had signed with Hitler. This was the culmination of the policy of appeasement. Six months later, Hitler stopped his promises and ordered his armies to invade Prague. Within a year, Britain and France were at war with Germany. The New York Times made the front page of the Munich agreement: “Hitler receives less than his claims from the Sudetenland,” and reports that a “joyful crowd” had applauded Daladier on his return to France and that Chamberlain had been “wildly applauded” upon his return to the UK. [54] In December 1938, the Sudetenland was the pro-Nazi region of the Empire, with half a million Sudeten Germans members. Daladier was convinced that the agreement did not appease the Nazis and that disaster would still happen, while Chamberlain thought there was cause for celebration, mistakenly convinced that he had achieved peace. The day after the signing of the agreement, Germany took control of the Sudetenland. The Czechoslovakians did not take retaliatory measures. On March 15, 1939, Hitler occupied Bohemia and Moravia, and Czechoslovakia ceased to exist. The day before, Slovakia had become an autonomous state of Nazi puppets.

Many Sudeten Germans acquired jobs in the protectorate or as Gestapo agents because they spoke fluent Czech. Northern Rhine, in the hope of independence, was taken over by Hungary. On 28 September at 10 a.m., four hours before the deadline expired and without the approval of Hitler`s request to Czechoslovakia, the British Ambassador to Italy, Lord Perth, summoned the Italian Foreign Minister, Mr Galeazzo Ciano, to request an emergency meeting. [37] Perth informed Ciano that Chamberlain had ordered him to ask Mussolini in the negotiations and ask Hitler to delay the ultimatum. [37] At 11:00 a.m., Ciano met With Mussolini and informed him of Chamberlain`s proposal; Mussolini agreed and responded by questioning the Italian ambassador to Germany and telling him: “Go immediately to Fuhrer`s house and tell him that I will be by his side, but that I ask for a 24-hour delay before hostilities begin.

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