In early 1961, President John F. Kennedy concluded that Fidel Castro was a Soviet client working to infiltrate Latin America. After much debate in his administration, Kennedy authorized a secret invasion of Cuba by a brigade of Cuban exiles. The brigade met at the Bay of Pigs beach on April 17, 1961, but the operation collapsed in two days in spectacular cases. Kennedy took public responsibility for the mistakes made, while remaining determined to free Cuba from Castro. The Suez crisis began on October 29, 1956, when Israeli forces headed for Egypt towards the Suez Canal, after the nationalization of the canal by Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918-70), a valuable waterway that controlled two-thirds of the oil used by Europe. The Israelis were… Read more At least four emergency strikes were armed and launched from Florida against Cuban airfields and suspected missile sites in 1963 and 1964, although all were redirected to the Rangecastle Pine complex after the planes passed the island of Andros. [150] Critics, including Seymour Melman[151] and Seymour Hersh [152] have argued that the Cuban missile crisis favoured the use of military means by the United States, as did the case during the Vietnam War. With the end of World War II and the outbreak of the Cold War, the United States was concerned about the expansion of communism. A Latin American country, openly allied with the Soviet Union, was deemed unacceptable by the United States. It would oppose, for example, the Monroe Doctrine, an American policy that limits U.S.

engagement in colonies and European affairs, but the case is that the Western Hemisphere is within the influence of the United States. Popular American media, especially television, have often benefited from the events of the missile crisis and both fictional and documentary forms. [161] Jim Willis cites the crisis as one of the 100 “media moments that changed America.” [162] Sheldon Stern finds that half a century later, there are still many “misunderstandings, half-truths and blatant lies” that have marked the media`s versions of what happened during those two upsetting weeks in the White House. [163] In November 1961, Kennedy approved Operation Mongoose, a secret plan to incite a rebellion in Cuba that the United States could support. While the Kennedy administration was planning Operation Mongoose, Soviet Prime Minister Nikita Khrushchev secretly introduced medium-range nuclear missiles into Cuba. On September 4, 1962, Kennedy publicly warned against the introduction of offensive weapons in Cuba. A U-2 flight on October 14 gave the first evidence of medium-range Soviet missiles to Cuba. Kennedy gathered 18 of his closest advisers to try to resolve the most dangerous US-Soviet confrontation of the Cold War. Some advisers have called for an airstrike to stretch the missiles and destroy the Cuban air force, followed by an American invasion of Cuba; Others called for warnings against Cuba and the Soviet Union. The president opted for an average course. On October 22, Kennedy ordered a naval quarantine from Cuba. He sent a letter to Khrushchev asking him to withdraw the missiles, making an exchange of letters between the two leaders, which lasted the entire crisis.

Fifty years after the crisis, Graham T.

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